悪口ってどこからが犯罪??

「悪口」といってもいろいろな類型がある

一口に「悪口」といっても、単なる不平・不満の場合から、事実無根の中傷もあり、また、何かに対する批評ということもあります。

悪口というのは当然法律用語ではなく、どのようなことが言われているのかを分析しないと、その実態は分からないということになります。

では、どのような観点で、このような分析をすればよいのでしょうか。

名誉毀損になるのはこんな時

しばしば、悪口を言われたり、批判をされたりすると、「名誉毀損だ!」と息巻く方がいますが、名誉毀損とはそもそもどのようなものでしょうか。

名誉毀損罪というのは、公然と事実を摘示して、人の社会的評価の低下を招くことをいいます。ただ、実際にはそれだけで判断されるのではなく、社会的評価の低下があるとしても、その違法性がなくなる事由があるのかどうか、という点を検討することが重要になります。

以下の事項を「全て」満たす場合には、違法性がないとして名誉毀損とはなりません(これを違法性阻却事由といいます)。

(1)公共の利害に関する事実に係ること
(2)もっぱら公益を図る目的であること
(3)摘示された事実が真実であること

名誉毀損では、「公然と事実を摘示」することが重要な要素となっています。これは、インターネット上に書けば当然に満たすことになりますが、たとえば複数人のLINEグループ内であっても、また、複数人がいる前で話をしても、満たす可能性があります。

ところで、たとえば単なる意見・論評、感想のような場合は、事実の摘示がないケースがあります。その場合は、名誉毀損罪となることはなく、侮辱罪が成立し得ることになります。

例えばの話で考えてみる

公然と行っていない場合、たとえば2人しかいないところで面と向かって悪口等を言われた場合は、名誉毀損も侮辱もその要件を満たさないので、成立することはありません。

他方で、陰口などを言われた場合でも、それがネットに書かれている場合や、複数人の間で言われていたような場合には、名誉毀損や侮辱が成立する余地があります。どちらが成立するのかは、そこで言われた内容によります。

※ちなみに、ネットに書かれているのであれば証拠があるのでよいですが、そうでない場合は証拠がなかなかないでしょうから、立証上、これを立件することは困難だろうといえます。

たとえば、「AさんはBさんのお尻を触っていた」というのは、お尻を触っていたという事実が摘示されているので、名誉毀損罪になり得ます。他方、「Aさんはいやらしい」というのは、事実が摘示されていないので侮辱罪になり得ます。

次に、本当にAさんがBさんのお尻を触っていたとすれば、それは強制わいせつ罪などになり得るものなので、それを指摘することは公共性があるといえますし、そのようなことをやめさせることが公益にも適うといえるので、公益目的もあるとされる可能性があるでしょう。

問題は、本当に触っていたのかどうかという点です。この点が本当であれば、違法性阻却事由があることになるため、成立しないことになります。

細かく言い出すとさらに色々なことを検討する必要がありますし、民事での検討はより複雑になってくることもあります。

トラブルの解決は、アイ総合コンサルタントへご相談ください。

※無料相談はしていません。

 

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悪口ってどこからが犯罪??”へ6件のコメント

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